We have a database of 45,829 inpatient and outpatient computerized ECGs performed from March 1987 to December 1999 at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System. Since 1987, the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System has used a centralized, computerized ECG system for collection, storage, and analysis of ECGs (GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa. WI). All patients were seen at the main VA facility or its satellite clinics, and ECGs were ordered by health care providers for standard clinical indications, usually to screen for occult disease and to obtain a baseline ECG when initiating care. Follow up for vital status including cause of death was completed in 2002 for a median follow up of 7 years.

Over 40 papers have been published using the computer measurements to predict outcomes. Some of these are listed below. Most recently this database was used to demonstrate that the traditional voltage criteria for LVH were not related to outcomes while various P wave patterns and amplitudes were related to outcomes.

2000 – 2010

Fearon WF, Lee DP, Froelicher VF. The effect of resting ST segment depression on the diagnostic characteristics of the exercise treadmill test. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr;35(5):1206-11.

Ashley EA, Raxwal VK, Froelicher VF. The prevalence and prognostic significance of electrocardiographic abnormalities. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2000 Jan;25(1):1-72.

Ashley EA, Froelicher VF. Computer applications in the interpretation of the exercise electrocardiogram. Sports Med. 2000 Oct;30(4):231-48.

Ashley EA, Raxwal V, Froelicher V. An evidence-based review of the resting electrocardiogram as a screening technique for heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;44(1):55-67.

Prakash M, Raxwal V, Froelicher VF, Kalisetti D, Vieira A, O’Mara G, Marcus R, Myers J, Kiratli J, Perkash I. Electrocardiographic findings in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):601-8.

Marcus RR, Kalisetti D, Raxwal V, Kiratli BJ, Myers J, Perkash I, Froelicher VF. Early repolarization in patients with spinal cord injury: prevalence and clinical significance. J Spinal Cord Med. 2002 Spring;25(1):33-8;

Yue P, Atwood JE, Froelicher V. Watch the p wave: it can change! Chest 2003;124(2):424-6.

Froelicher VF, Marcus R, Heidenreich PA. Prognostic Value Of Computer Electrocardiography In Veteran Outpatients. Fed Pract. 2004;21(3):11-12, 17-20.

Engel G, Beckerman JG, Froelicher VF, Yamazaki T, Chen HA, Richardson K, McAuley RJ, Ashley EA, Chun S, Wang PJ. Electrocardiographic arrhythmia risk testing. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2004 Jul;29(7):365-432.

Shah BR, Yamazaki T, Engel G, Cho S, Chun SH, Froelicher VF. Computerized QT dispersion measurement and cardiovascular mortality in male veterans. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Feb 15;93(4):483-6.

Richardson K, Engel G, Yamazaki T, Chun S, Froelicher VF. Electrocardiographic damage scores and cardiovascular mortality. Am Heart J. 2005 Mar;149(3):458-63.

Yamazaki T, Froelicher VF, Myers J, Chun S, Wang P. Spatial QRS-T angle predicts cardiac death in a clinical population. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Jan;2(1):73-8.

Beckerman J, Yamazaki T, Myers J, Boyle C, Chun S, Wang P, Froelicher V. T-wave abnormalities are a better predictor of cardiovascular mortality than ST depression on the resting electrocardiogram. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2005 Apr;10(2):146-51.

Yamazaki T, Myers J, Froelicher VF. Prognostic importance of isolated T-wave abnormalities. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jan 15;95(2):300-4.

Hsieh BP, Pham MX, Froelicher VF. Prognostic value of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J. 2005 Jul;150(1):161-7.

Desai AD, Yaw TS, Yamazaki T, Kaykha A, Chun S, Froelicher VF. Prognostic Significance of Quantitative QRS Duration. Am J Med. 2006 Jul;119(7):600-6.

Engel G, Cho S, Ghayoumi A, Yamazaki T, Chun S, Fearon WF, Froelicher VF.Prognostic significance of PVCs and resting heart rate. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2007 Apr;12(2):121-9.

Perez MV, Yaw TS, Myers J, Froelicher VF. Prognostic value of the computerized ECG in Hispanics. Clin Cardiol. 2007 Apr;30(4):189-94.

Dewey FE, Kapoor JR, Williams RS, Lipinski MJ, Ashley EA, Hadley D, Myers J,Froelicher VF. Ventricular arrhythmias during clinical treadmill testing and prognosis. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jan 28;168(2):225-34.

Tan SY, Engel G, Myers J, Sandri M, Froelicher VF. The Prognostic Value of T Wave Amplitude in Lead aVR in Males. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2008 Apr;13(2):113-9.

Tan SY, Sungar GW, Myers J, Sandri M, Froelicher V. A simplified clinical electrocardiogram score for the prediction ofcardiovascular mortality.Clin Cardiol. 2009 Feb;32(2):82-6.PMID: 19215007

Perez MV, Dewey FE, Tan SY, Myers J, Froelicher VF. Added value of a resting ECG neural network that predicts cardiovascularmortality.Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2009 Jan;14(1):26-34.PMID: 19149790